Case study and theories on strategic management

1. Introduction

The five-forces model of Porter is usually a framework utilized as a technique tool to make an analysis of the value of a business structure. This can be a vital analytical tool developed by Michael E. Porter of Harvard Organization College in 1979. It captures the main element components of industry competition.2

2. The five-forces model of competition

A business can confront competition that comes from rivalry businesses generating and selling similar goods to the same marketplace. A competitive environment could be a fierce and even cutthroat environment, or even governed by unwritten guidelines, what we call up "gentlemen’s agreements," that assist the industry to pun intended, the damage that high price-cutting, advertising and advertising expenses can have got on the business’ profits.

To gain an improved understanding and knowledge of a business’s sector and competitive industry, managers should focus more on the task at hand instead of gathering all the information they can get and how to write an opinion essay waste a whole lot of their own time digesting it. Managers can use some well-defined principles and analytical tools to believe strategically about the company’s competitive environment. One way of analysing and understanding the nature of the competitive environment is employing Porter’s five-forces model. The five forces are:

Substitute products of services

Rivalry among competing businesses

Bargaining power of buyers

Potential New Entrants

Bargaining power of suppliers2.1 Alternative products of services

Competitive pressures which come from companies outside the sector trying to win purchasers over to their products.

Competitive pressures from substitutes will be stronger when:

Good substitutes are plentiful.

Switching to substitutes has low costs at a time users.

Substitute items are attractively priced, attracting buyers to buy their products.

Substitutes have similar or better performance features compared to the current business.

Constant use of substitutes has become a habit for the end users growing convenient each time.

Competitive pressures from substitutes are weaker when:

Good substitutes will be unavailable or non-existent.

Switching to substitutes has high costs at a time users.

Substitutes are not nearly as good in performance or are at a higher price when compared to current business.

2.2 Bargaining electric power of suppliers

Competitive pressures that stem from dealer bargaining power and collaboration between the supplier and seller.

Supplier bargaining vitality is stronger when:

Businesses switching their purchases to choice suppliers may incur higher costs.

Needed inputs are an issue, which gives suppliers additional leverage in setting rates.

The suppliers’ products are a valuable or critical area of the sellers’ production process.

Products required are available with only a few suppliers.

Some suppliers threaten to integrate forward into the business of industry associates and perhaps become a powerful rival.

Supplier bargaining electric power is weaker when:

The item being provided is a commodity that is available from many suppliers.

Seller switching costs to choice suppliers are low.

Good alternative inputs exist or different ones emerge.

There is normally a surge in the availability of suppliers thus considerably weakening supplier’s pricing electricity.

Seller collaboration with determined suppliers provides beneficial possibilities.

Industry members are a danger to integrate backward into the business of suppliers and also to self-manufacture their unique requirements.

2.3 Rivalry among competing businesses

Competitive pressures developed by jockeying for better marketplace position, more sales and market share, and competitive advantage.

Rivalry is more powerful when:

Buyer demand is usually low.

Buyer demand falls off and businesses end up with excess potential and/or inventory.

The quantity of rivals increase and rivals are approximately equivalent size and competitive ability.

The items of rival companies are commodities or else weakly differentiated.

Costs in switching brands for purchaser are low.

Rivals make aggressive techniques to attract more customers.

Outsiders have recently acquired weak rivals and are trying to turn them into key contenders.4

Rivals have rigid tactics.

Rivals are fighting over for the same industry.

Rivalry is definitely weaker when:

Industry members move only infrequently or in a non-aggressive manner to draw revenue and market share away from rivals.4

Buyer demand is substantial.

The goods of rival companies are strongly differentiated and buyer loyalty is high.4

Costs in switching makes for buyer are large.

A rival’s activities have little direct impact on the current business because of an already saturated market.

2.4 Bargaining vitality of buyers

Competitive pressures that stem from customer bargaining power and collaboration between your buyer and seller.

Buyer bargaining electric power is stronger when:

Buyers’ consumption of competing brands or substitutes can be low.

Bulk purchases are vital to the success of a business. Buyers can demand for discounts when purchasing in large quantities.

Buyer demand is fragile or declining.

There are only a few buyers.

Buyers have the ability to postpone purchases until afterwards if they do not like the present deals being provided by sellers.

Some buyers certainly are a danger to integrate backward in to the business of sellers and become a crucial competitor.

Buyer bargaining power is weaker when:

Buyers choose the item infrequently or in tiny quantities.

Costs in switching makes for buyer are substantial.

There is usually a surge in client demand that makes a "sellers’ market".

A seller’s brand popularity is important to a buyer.

A specific supplier’s merchandise delivers better performance or higher quality that is important to the buyer, and no other makes can match it.

Buyer collaboration or partnering with decided on retailers provides beneficial opportunities.

2.5 Potential latest entrants

Competitive pressures that come from the threat of new entrants (rivals).

Entry threats are stronger when:

The number of new entrants is large.

New entrants happen to be formidable market contenders as a result of their resources available to them.

Lower requirements / barriers for different entrants.

Buyer demand is high.

When existing industry customers want to expand their marketplace reach by entering merchandise segments or geographic areas where they currently don’t have a presence.4

Newcomers can get to earn attractive gains.

Businesses cannot highly contest with the entry of newcomers.

Entry threats happen to be weaker when:

The number of latest entrants is small.

Existing rivals are struggling to make healthy profits.4

The industry’s outlook is normally risky or uncertain.4

Buyer demand is usually low.

Businesses will strongly contest with the brand new entrants to gain a market stronghold.

Higher requirements / barriers for brand-new entrants.

2.6 Using the five-forces model

How to use the five-forces model to look for the nature and durability of competitive pressures in a given industry can be to build the photograph of competition in three techniques:

Step 1: To recognize the competitive pressures in relation with each one of the forces.

Step 2: To judge how solid the pressures of each of the forces happen to be.

Step 3: To determine whether the collective power of the forces is normally conducive to earning gains.

3. Case study – MOS Burger

For this task, I have decided to choose a fast food outlet such as for example MOS Burger, as a research study to determine the nature and strength of its competitive pressures in Singapore’s food industry.

A) Threats of brand-new entrants

In Singapore, threats of fresh entrants are rather substantial as there are little dissimilarities with the products among the rivals and the cost to enter the market is usually low. Since Singapore employs staff from regional areas primarily from the Philippines, Malaysia, Indonesia and China, labour comes in abundance.

MOS Burger is usually a fast-food restaurant chain (fast-informal) that originated in Japan. It really is now the second-largest fast-food franchise in Japan after McDonald’s, and owns various abroad outlets over East Asia, including Taiwan, Singapore, Hong Kong, Thailand and Indonesia.5 In Singapore, this can be a recognised junk food organisation locally but as for western foreigners, they may still choose to consume at McDonald’s. Stiff competition should come from the large established chain restaurants instead of from small independent newcomer.

B) Bargaining electricity of buyers

Consumers in Singapore include a variety of junk food restaurant choices they can pick from, so they do have some bargaining power. However, kind of food and located area of the premises may decrease this bargaining vitality. The problem with most fast food restaurants including MOS Burger can be that most

of the buyer purchase in small quantities at low and cost-effective prices. Therefore, it could be essential to appeal to a large crowd of people in order to be profitable, and for that reason, MOS Burger outlets may not likely prosper in remote areas but is doing well in high site visitors flow areas such as for example in stores.

As consumers wouldn’t normally have the same products and food supply employed by MOS Burger, it might be difficult for consumers to replicate the same meal at home, in addition to the same ambiance that attracts them.

C) Bargaining electric power of suppliers

Bargaining power of suppliers within Singapore will be small, unless the key ingredient of the product is not available or non-existent. For example, the MOS Rice Burger uses a bun manufactured from rice blended with barley and millet.5

D) Threats of substitutes

This could range from competitive rivals to family restaurants to home prepared meals. MOS Burger is known for employing uniquely Japanese sauces, flavours and fresh vegetables in its dishes which is hard for just about any person or organisation to duplicate.

E) Rivalry among existing competitors

Singapore is already saturated with many fast food outlets and large established chain eating places with strong manufacturer identities such as McDonald’s, Pizza Hut, Burger King and KFC. Even so, to stand apart, it could be advisable for brand-new entrants to focus on item differentiation; making their item and services unique and various from others. Luckily, MOS Burger’s goods are slightly not the same as the other normal burgers. Consuming at MOS Burger can be quite a different experience. Most MOS Burgers prepare the meals al carte. The burgers are prepared only after receiving an ordered and customers may have wait 10 – quarter-hour.

Besides offering the standard type of hamburgers on the menu, MOS Burger also offers burgers that are unique and cannot be found at Burger King, McDonald’s or other junk food restaurants in Singapore. Among these unique burgers is called the Rice Burger, which replaces the normal bun with two smooth round rice patties manufactured from rice with millet and barley. The Rice Burgers could be hard and messy to hold together with your bare hands, however, a lot of people in Singapore have a tendency to hold burgers using the wrappers. Other offerings are the "Kinpira" rice burger, made out of root vegetables that will be sauteed with soy sauce and additional flavourings. The "Ros Katsu" burger is made with deep fried pork cutlet (tonkatsu) served with a sweet barbecue-like sauce and cabbage.

The MOS Burger menu is not limited by burger type items. In addition they offer poultry nuggets, fried chicken, basic hot puppies and chilli dogs. Just like their competitor, McDonald’s, MOS Burger likewise have set meals and specialized items that could be offered on special events. Side menu items incorporate French fries, salads and onion rings. The kid’s menus will include a small sized hamburger or rice burger with French fries privately and an orange juice.

MOS Burger desserts include milkshakes, frozen cake pubs and parfait type desserts; all made with Japanese style substances. The drink products offered include carbonated drinks, the various kind of coffee/tea (sizzling hot or frigid), orange juice, bright white grape soda, melon soda and iced cocoa.

The giants of the fast food market like Burger King, McDonald’s, Pizza Hut, KFC could impact how powerful the business could be by having marketing campaigns to get rid of their competition.

4. Different theories and concepts

There are many other concepts and theories that may be used alongside the five-forces of Porter to effectively analyse and evaluate elements (mainly external) which have an influence on the accomplishment of the business enterprise.

4.1 SWOT analysis

It is used in strategic planning, a method used to evaluate the Strengths, Weaknesses, Prospects and Threats in a business enterprise. The SWOT examination provides information that is beneficial to managers in complementing the organisation’s capacities and means to the competitive environment where it operates.

Environmental Scan

Internal Analysis External Analysis

Strengths Opportunities

Weaknesses Threats

4.1.1 Strengths

An organisation’s strengths will be its means and capabilities. It can be utilized as a basis for creating a competitive advantage. For instance, each one of the following could be considered strengths:


Recognised brand names;

Customer loyalty;

Low operating costs; and

Favourable usage of distribution channels.

4.1.2 Weaknesses

The insufficient certain strengths is seen as a weakness. Types of such weaknesses include:

Not the sole-owner of the product;

A weak/unrecognised brand name;

Poor reputation;

High operating costs; and

Lack of access to distribution networks.

4.1.3 Opportunities

The external environmental examination could show new options for expansion and profits. For example, each one of the following may be considered opportunities:

A customer do not need to being catered for;

The development of innovative technologies or improvements;

De-regulations; and

Removal of overseas trade barriers.

4.1.4 Threats

Changes in the external environmental may present threats to the organisation. Examples of such threats include:

Changes in trend which in turn causes consumer preferences to shift;

The option of substitute products;

Implementation of new regulations; and

Increased of foreign trade barriers.

4.2 PESTEL analysis

PESTEL comes from Political, Economic, Public, Technological, Environmental and Legal elements. A PESTEL research is a organization measurement instrument, looking at factors external to the organisation. It is often used within a strategic SWOT analysis.

It is a essential strategic tool for deciding and understanding:

The position of the business enterprise;

Potential market growth or market decline; and

Operational directions.

The PESTEL analysis can often be used to discover where an organization or product is normally in the context of what’s happening outside that may at some time effect what’s happening in a organisation.D

4.2.1 Political factors

Political factors are what sort of government encourage or hinder growth in the economy and also to what degree. Some examples of political factors include:

Labour laws;

Environmental laws;

Tax policies;

Restrictions on trade;

Tariffs; and

Political stability.

Political factors could also include services and things which the government really wants to provide and those that the government does not want to provide. Furthermore, governments have effect on a nation’s education, employment, health, protection and infrastructure.

4.2.2 Economic factors

Each of the next may be considered financial factors:

Economic expansion (GDP /GNP);

Interest rates;

Recessions / depressions;

Exchange rates; and

Inflation / deflation.

These factors have large impacts how organisations run and generate decisions. For instance, exchange rates affect the costs of exported products and affect the costs of imported goods.

4.2.3 Social factors

Examples of social elements include:


Population growth rate;

Age distribution; and

Trends in social factors have an impact on how an organisation functions and the demand because of its products. For instance, an aging population such as in Singapore may imply a smaller sized and less-willing workforce, accordingly, employing foreign workers to meet up the necessities of the people (both local and overseas) and the escalating progress of the united states.

4.2.4 Technological factors

Each of the next may be considered technological factors:


Computer software and devices;

New technology;

Improvements in production strategies; and

The rate of technical change.

They can affect efficiency, top quality and costs in creation and the as lead to innovation.

4.2.5 Environmental factors

Environmental factors include ecological and environmental elements:

Climate changes;


Conservation / preservation;

Deforestation; and

Growing awareness of the potential impacts of weather change has effects on how corporations are run and the products they provide. Creating new market segments (eg. "green" tourists) and lowering or destroying existing types.

4.2.6 Legal factors

Some examples of legal factors include:

Discrimination law;

Consumer protection laws;

Anti-trust laws;

Employment laws; and

Health and safety restrictions.

These factors may have an effect on how an organisation is usually managed, its costs and the demand for its products.

5. Conclusions

Strategic planning can be an organisation’s process of defining its direction, strategy and decision-making predicated on internal and as well as external environment, allocating its solutions to pursue this plan, including its capital and folks. Besides the five-forces model, SWOT evaluation and the PESTEL research, there are many business-analysis products that may support a person in thinking more strategically about their business.